Chitinase producing bacteria can involve extensively in nutrient cycling and energy flow in the aquatic environment through degradation and utilization of chitin. It is well known that diatoms cells are encased by box-like frustules composed of chitin. Thus the chitin containing of diatoms shall be a natural target of chitinase producing bacteria, however, the interaction between these two organismic groups has not been studied thus far. Therefore, in this study, the algicidal mechanism of one chitinase producing bacterium (strain LY03) on Thalassiosira pseudonana was investigated. The algicidal range and algicidal mode of strain LY03 were first studied, and then bacterial viability, chemotactic ability and direct interaction characteristic between bacteria and diatom were also confirmed. Finally, the characteristic of the intracellular algicidal substance was identified and the algicidal mechanism was determined whereby algicidal bacterial cells showed chemotaxis to algal cells, fastened themselves on algal cells with their flagella, and then produced chitinase to degrade algal cell walls, and eventually caused algal lysis and death. It is the first time to investigate the interaction between chitinase producing bacteria and diatoms, and this novel special interaction mode was confirmed in this study, which will be helpful in protection and utilization of diatoms resources.